wrong each more strongly. so correcting can have a counterproductive effect, or backfire effect, as we call it in our research. >> which is what we're starting to see a lot of in this season in particular. adam, we talked about this earlier on this show, one of the things that has always struck me is just the attention span of the electorate. and if you hear something on thursday that is blatantly false, that has been demonstrated by journalists on either side of the spectrum, just flat-out wrong, do voters remember that, or it is one of the things that two days later, it's eh. >> i think some of them remember it. actually, it's really -- it may be in fact the voters who are paying the most attention who are the real problems here, people who are very involved in politics, who feel very strongly about it, have very strong partisan emotions. when they hear these things, it's not that they don't remember them, they follow it closely, it's just that they don't believe it. they are so tied up with their political opinion that they just hear what they want to hear.